Acid Cut
The process where layers of different colours of glass are layered and the acid is used to skilfully cut through the layers as desired to leave a beautiful decorative floral or landscape design.
Bronze
is the most popular metal for cast metal sculptures. An alloy of copper and tin, sometimes containing small amounts of other elements in varying proportions such as zinc and phosphorus. Harder and more durable than brass and used extensively since antiquity for casting sculpture. Bronze has the unusual and desirable property of expanding slightly just before it is set, thus filling the finest details of a mould. Its strength and ductility (lack of brittleness) is an advantage when figures in action are to be created, especially when compared to various ceramic or stone materials.
Cameo Glass
A luxury form of art glass produced by etching and carving through fused layers of differently coloured glass to produce designs
Circa
A term used to estimate the date of a particular object to its approximate year or original manufacture
Cold Painted
The naturalistic surface colour finish created by painting the raw bronze with special and secretive enamel colours, As the process was often applied when the cast was still warm, the natural shrinkage on cooling added to the permanency of the colour as it annealed the paint firmly into the metal.
Crystal Glass
Fine glass melted from specially prepared, purified raw materials, thus particularly clear and characterised by a high refraction factor.
Enamelled
 A decorative layer designed by the artist, baked onto either glass or bronze to create a glossy creative hand finished surface.
Etched
To cut into the surface of glass by the action of acid.
Gilt
The term gilding covers a number of decorative techniques for applying fine gold leaf or powder to the surface of glass or metal to give a thin coating of gold. A gilded object is described as “gilt” or “ormolu”. Methods of gilding include hand application and gluing, chemical gilding, and electroplating, the last also called gold plating.
Geschutzt
The German word stamped or inscribed onto metalwork meaning ‘registered’ or ‘copyright’.
 Hallmarked
his refers to precious metals, such as gold, silver, or platinum that have been sent to an assay office and tested for purity. In the UK these items are then stamped to show that purity, adding the year, in the form of a letter, and stamp of the assay office, and finally the makers or retailers stamp. Please note that factory marks, studio stamps, workshop symbol or imprint, are not hallmarks. If an item of gold is marked, for example, ‘15k’,or silver is stamped ‘sterling silver’ it is not hallmarked, it is simply indicating its purity.
 Hand Chase
is a metalworking technique in which the piece is hammered on the front side, sinking the metal.  This technique is often used in conjunction with Repoussé.
Ivory
The natural material that originates from elephant tusk. CITES ~ The Endangered Species Act ~ allows the use of ivory in antiques made before June 1947. Ivory may not be used for modern sculpture.
Iridescent Glass
Glass that contains a rainbow-like colouring on its surface, similar to the effect of oil on water; created either when a layer of metallic oxide is bonded to hot glass or with a special coating of metal oxides.
Loaded
 This is where a candlestick or vase has had weight added to the base to add stability. This can be achieved by using pieces of lead, or the base filled with pitch, or plaster of Paris, or a combination.
Onyx
is a cryptocrystalline form of quartz. The colours range from white to almost every colour.  Commonly, specimens of onyx contain bands of colours of white, tan and brown.
Pate de Verre
Pate de verre involves making a paste of glass that is applied to the surface of the mould, then fired. In traditional French pate de verre, the artist mixed crushed glass with enamels or paint to form a paste that was carefully placed in a mould and then fired. Many of the pieces that were made using this technique were relatively small, elaborately decorated, and required more than one firing before they were complete.
Patina
The surface of metal sculpture that results from natural oxidation or careful application of heat, chemicals and polishing agents.
Pewter
is a malleable metal alloy consisting of tin (85–99%), antimony (approximately 5–10%), copper (2%), bismuth and sometimes silver. Copper and antimony (and in antiquity lead) act as hardeners but lead may be used in lower grades of pewter, imparting a bluish tint. Pewter has a low melting point, around 170–230 °C (338–446 °F), depending on the exact mixture of metals. The word pewter is probably a variation of the word spelter, a term for zinc alloys (originally a colloquial name for zinc).
Polished Pewter
Repoussé
is a metalworking technique in which a malleable metal is shaped by hammering from the reverse side to create a design in low relief. This technique is often used in conjunction with hand chasing
Sconce
This is the top part of the candlestick which can simply be the candle holder but often incorporates a drip pan, and is removable. In the USA this is often referred to as a bobeche, but bobeche were originally a glass dish on a chandelier, for each candle, to catch the melting wax, and are now mostly found as a simple glass disc placed over the candle to catch the wax, which makes for easy removal of the wax without it dripping all over the candlestick.
Silver
Often used to shorten sterling silver, especially in the UK, but can refer to any grade of silver and means ‘solid silver’ rather than silver plated.
Silver Plated
Silvered
The term silvered covers a number of decorative techniques for applying a fine layer to the surface of glass or metal to give a thin coating of silver. Methods of silvering include hand application and gluing, chemical silvering, and electroplating, the last also called silver plating.
Solifleur
Translating as “single flower” the term refers to a thin necked vase that would be suitable to display a single stemmed flower
Spelter
Usually a compound metal mainly formed from Zinc. Used as a cheap alternative to bronze.
Sterling
This is an expression used in the United States to refer to silver and simply shortens ‘sterling silver’. Please note that not all silver is made of the sterling standard – see sterling silver- many countries used different purities such as 800, 830, 900, 950. This does not take anything away from the quality and skill with which these items are made, it is simply that different countries have different sets of rules. Faberge worked in ‘88 Zolotnik’ which is actually 916.6 not 925 purity
Sterling silver
Silver of 92.5 per cent purity.
Titania
The Titania range of Loetz Witwe glass was introduced circa 1905, produced by casing a coloured ground in clear translucent glass divided by metallic feathering. Some pieces were mounted by the International Silver Co. of Meriden, Connecticut and marked £ Sterling.

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